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# MCAT Physics Equations

## Motion

#### Average Speed

`v = d/t`

#### Average Velocity

`v̅ = Δx/Δt`

#### Average Acceleration

`a̅ = Δv̅/Δt`

#### Translational motion at constant acceleration

`x - x0 = v0t + ½at2`
`v - v0 = at`
`v2 = v02 + 2a(x - x0) becomes v = √2gh in free fall where v0 = 0`
`v̅ = ½(v + v0)`

## Force

`F = ma`

#### Gravity

`Fg = G(m1m2)/r2`

#### Inclined Planes

`FN = mg cos θ`
`Fincline = mg sin θ`

#### Friction

`Ffr = μkFN ≤ μsFN`

#### Hooke's Law

`F = -kΔx`

`τ = Fl`

#### Equilibrium

`Fdirection = Fopposite direction at equilibrium`
`τclockwise = τcounter clockwise at equilibrium`
`Fdirection = Fopposite direction ± ma at non-equilibrium`

## Energy

#### Kinetic energy

`K = ½mv2`

#### Potential energy

`Ug = mgh`
`Ue = ½kΔx2`

#### Conservation of energy

`Etotal = EKE + EPE`
`PE1 + KE1 = PE2 + KE2`

#### Work-energy theorem

`W = ΔK + ΔU + ΔEi`

#### Rest mass energy

`E = mc2`

#### Work

`W = Fdcosθ`
`W = ΔK + ΔU + ΔEi`

#### Power

`P = Fvcosθ`

`P = ΔW / Δt`

## Fluids

#### Density

`ρ = m/V`

#### Buoyant Force

`Fbuoyant = ρVg`

#### Hydrostatic pressure

`P = ρgh`

#### Continuity equation

`A•v = constant`

#### Bernoulli’s equation

`p + ρgy + ½ρv2 = constant`

## Electricity and Magnetism

#### Coulomb’s Law

`F = k (Q1Q2/r2)`

#### Electric field due to a point charge

`E = k (Q/r2)`

#### Electric potential energy

`U = k (Q1Q2/r)`

#### Electric potential

`V = k (Q/r)`

#### Constant Electric Fields

`F = qE`
`V = Ed`
`U = qEd`
`U = Vq`

#### Ohm's Law

`I = V/R`

#### Resistivity

`ρ = R•A/L`

#### Resistors

`Reff = R1 + R2 + ... in series`
`1/Reff = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ... in parallel`

#### Capacitors

`1/Ceff = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + ... in series`
`Ceff = C1 + C2 + ... in parallel`

#### Force on a charge moving in a magnetic field

`F = qvB sin θ`

## Waves, Sound, and Light

`v = fλ`

#### Wave period

`T = 1/f`

#### Beat frequency

`f = |f1 - f2|`

#### Doppler effect

`Δf/fs = v/c`
`Δλ/λs = v/c`

`E = hf`

#### Snell's Law

`n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2`

#### Lens equation

`1/p + 1/q = 1/f`

### Related Articles

#### MCAT Equations

List of equations from MCAT2015 Content Description